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Feedback: Feedback

Feed Back - How am I going? (What progress is being made toward the goal?)

Hattie and Timperley (2007) point out that responding to student work in a way that will provide students with information about how they are going requires careful thought and consideration. An incorrect feedback statement and the intended impact will be defective. “Feedback should be a ‘check up’ not a ‘post mortem’” (Hattie).

Hattie and Timperley in their article ‘The Power of Feedback’ outline four separate levels for which feedback can be provided to students about their progress.

It is important to note in this phase of feedback that our overall goal is to move students towards self-regulation. To do this effectively, it is important to pay attention to the value of feedback at each level. Not everything has been detailed here, but only a snap shot of the general consensus.


Feedback needs to address these levels. Feedback for the novice should be task based - how they performed a task and the next steps to achieve this task at a higher level. Proficient students should receive process level feedback. This is the processes that need to be understood to perform the tasks. Students who self-regulate, or are competent, should be receiving feedback that describes how learners can monitor and regulate their own actions and seek next steps. This feedback should develop the willingness to seek and effectively respond to feedback to self-assess and self-correct.



Hattie, J. (2009) Visible Learning, a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge. 173 - 176.

Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112.

Marzano, R. (2017). The New Art and Science of Teaching. Moorabbin: Victoria: Hawker Brownlow Education.

Murtagh, L. (2014). The motivational paradox of feedback: Teacher and student perceptions. The Curriculum Journal, 25(4), 516-541.

Woodward, G. M. (2015). Peer review in the classroom: is it beneficial? Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, 23(1),40 - 46.

The Secret of Effective Feedback

Dylan Wiliam

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Thanking the contributors to this information – The Effective Feedback Action Research Pod

Leanne Addley, Melissa Liddy, Danielle Sim, Christianne Kemp, Matthew Levander, Greg O’Neill