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In-text Citations: Home

When do you Cite?

Each time you summarise, paraphrase or use a direct quote (including statistics) from another source you must indicate the source of that information in the body of your work.

Each in-text citation must also have an entry in your Bibliography.

How do you Cite?

Direct Quote

Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have quoted the author. See below:

As historian Tonkin (1992, p.13.) argues, "[t]here are those who can read but not write, or are able to recognise road signs but not to read shop names." She suggests that, rather than think of literacy in clear cut terms of a person's ability to read and write, we should recognize different degrees of ability. After all, she asserts, "[t]he line is not so easy to draw between 'able to read' and 'able to understand'." 

Use square brackets around words or letters within a direct quote to acknowledge to the reader of your work that you have changed a capitalised letter or word.

Paraphrase

Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have paraphrased the author's ideas. See below:

While we often think of literacy in simple terms, it is a very complex issue. Many people in both Britain and the United States are unable to read a textbook, for example, but can read road signs without difficulty (Tonkin, 1992, p.13).

 

Sentence Starters

Introducing the ideas of others in your assignment

Sentence Starters and more

Sentence starters and more 

In discussing whether or not ... Before deciding whether ... ... is defined ...
The definition of ... will be given ... ... is briefly outlined ... ... is explored ...
This issue focussed on is ... ... is demonstrated ... ... is included ...
The current debate regarding ... It is often argued that ... ... are identified ...
The key aspect discussed ... ... are presented ... ... is justified ...
Views on ... range from ... ... is evaluated ... ... is examined ...
The central theme ... ... is described ... ... is analysed ...
It could be suggest that ... ... is explained and illustrated with examples ... The topic of ... will be discussed ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

Also consider ... Equally important ... Subsequently ...
Futhermore ... Moreover ... As well as ...
Next ... Another essential point ... Additionally ...
More importantly ... In the same way ... Similarly ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

For example ... ... as can be seen in ... For instance ...
An illustration of ... ... as demonstrated by ... ... is observed ...
Specifically ... ... is shown ... ... exemplifies ...
... as seen in Diagram A ... Diagram A illustrates ... According to figures in Table A ...
... (see Figure A) ... Chiefly ... As an example ...
In this case ... Namely ...  Particularly ...
Here is an example of ... Imagine, for instance ... As you can see ...
By way of example ... As this example suggests ... Consider ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

Similarly ... In the same way ... Likewise ...
In comparison ... Complementary to this ... Then again ...
However ... This is in contrast to ... In contrast ...
And yet ... Nevertheless ... Conversely ...
On the contrary ... On the other hand ... Notwithstanding ...
Whereas ... In contrast to ... That aside ...
While this is the case ... ... disputes ... Despite this ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

Perhaps ... ... may be ... ... might be ...
There is limited evidence for ... ... is debated ... ... is possibly ...
... could ... ... may include ... ... is a possibility ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

According to ... Based on the findings of ... ... proposed that ...
As explained by ... ... states that ... ... claims that ...
However, ... stated that ... ... suggested ... ... concluded that ...
Similarly, ... stated that ... ... agreed that ... Based on the ideas of ...
... defined ... as ... ... relates ... As identified by ...
... disputed that ... ... confirmed that ... In contrast to ...
... argues that ... ... demonstrates ... ... found that ...
... hypothesised that ... ... goes on to say ... ... maintained that ...

 

Sentence starters and more ...

In conclusion ... To review ... In brief ...
In closing ... In short ... Therefore ...
It has been shown that ... Thus we can conclude ... Hence, it can be seen that ...
There are many reasons ... It would seem that ... Observers would recommend ...
It could be suggested that ... As a general response ... The facts indicate that ...
Most experts (dis)agree ... Analysis of the data suggests ... The evidence supports the idea that ...
Primary sources support ... Popular opinion supports ... Consequently ...

 

Intext Citation Video

Citemaker: In-text Citations