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We have graded each source in this Research Guide according to the following levels.
Brief, easy to read information which may be basic and use informal language. Newspaper articles are generally this level.
Generally includes subject-specific language, provides additional reading and may provide additional background information.
Typically, these will be longer in length, detailed and contain technical information.
Senior School Database Search
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Search the Institute's Data points for your ecological hazard.
Our World in Data | Malaria
"Malaria is a disease that is transmitted from person to person by infected mosquitoes. The bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito transmits a parasite that enters the victim’s blood system and travels into the person’s liver where the parasite reproduces ... "
UNICEF | Malaria Data
"In 2017, there were 219 million malaria cases that led to 435,000 deaths. Of these 61 per cent (266,000) were children under 5 years of age. This translates into a daily toll of nearly 730 children under age 5 ... "
Incidence of Malaria (per 1,000 population at risk).
2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa
"On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea. The identification of these early cases marked the beginning of the West Africa Ebola epidemic, the largest in history ... "
"The Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first discovered in Zaire, today the Democratic Republic of Congo, in 1976 ... "
Chronology of Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks, 1976-2014
"The data used in the visualization bellow comes from the Fact sheet N. 103, Ebola virus disease and the Ebola virus disease outbreak 2014 updates and Situation Report: Ebola response roadmap published by The World Health Organization (WHO). The map shows all countries affected by outbreaks and label displaying the number of outbreaks occurred in each country ... "
Ebola Resource Centre
"The Lancet Ebola Resource Centre contains all related resources from the Lancet family of journals, offered with free access to assist health workers and researchers in their important work against this disease ... "
Ebola | Infectious Diseases Data Observatory
"The Ebola Data Platform strengthens knowledge and capacity across the health, research and humanitarian communities to reduce the impact of Ebola through responsible data use ... "
"Ebola virus (EBOV) was the best-known and most extensively studied member of the Filoviridae family (Mononegavirales order) long before the shattering 2013–2016 West African epidemic. The virologic taxon Filoviridae was defined in 1982 and subsequently amended regularly to accommodate changes.
Why it’s hard to stop Ebola spreading – between people and across borders
"The source of primary human infection with Ebola virus are wild animals. The exposure takes place during unprotected hunting and processing of infected wild animals for meat consumption ... "
Uganda's experience in Ebola virus disease outbreak preparedness, 2018-2019
"Since the declaration of the 10th Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in DRC on 1st Aug 2018, several neighboring countries have been developing and implementing preparedness efforts to prevent EVD cross-border transmission to enable timely detection, investigation, and response in the event of a confirmed EVD outbreak in the country. We describe Uganda's experience in EVD preparedness ... "
The Ebola Epidemic : The Fight, The Future
"An ordinary blue thermos holding blood samples from a sick nun in Zaire reached Belgium's Institute of Tropical Medicine in September 1976. From the samples, researchers discovered a new virus, which they named the Ebola virus after a river in Central Africa. The virus killed two hundred eighty people before it seemingly disappeared into the jungle. No one suspected the virus would erupt in West Africa nearly four decades later to cause an unprecedented epidemic ... "
World Malaria Report 2019
On a global scale, there was exceptional headway made in reducing the burden of malaria in the period 2000–2015 – proof that progress is possible. Many countries with a low burden of malaria are moving quickly
towards elimination. However, the rate of progress has slowed in recent years, and critical targets will likely be missed.
"Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malaria is caused by four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax ... "
Malaria control: the power of integrated action
"New strategies for malaria prevention and control are emphasizing ‘integrated vector management’ (IVM). This approach reinforces linkages between health and environment, optimizing benefits to both ... "
"Our vision is a world free from the burden of malaria. Our mission is to support malaria-affected countries and galvanise global action across all sectors to end malaria for good ... "
Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.
"In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission ... "
Modelled and observed mean and seasonal relationships between climate, population density and malaria indicators in Cameroon.
"A major health burden in Cameroon is malaria, a disease that is sensitive to climate, environment and socio-economic conditions, but whose precise relationship with these drivers is still uncertain. An improved understanding of the relationship between the disease and its drivers, and the ability to represent these relationships in dynamic disease models, would allow such models to contribute to health mitigation and adaptation planning ... "