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We have graded each source in this Research Guide according to the following levels.
Brief, easy to read information which may be basic and use informal language. Newspaper articles are generally this level.
Generally includes subject-specific language, provides additional reading and may provide additional background information.
Typically, these will be longer in length, detailed and contain technical information.
You will need a username and password for this article, see your teacher. When you load this Britannica article, click on the 1 above the article for that Reading Level. "In an earthquake, huge masses of rock move beneath the Earth’s surface and cause the ground to shake. Earthquakes occur constantly around the world. Often they are too small for people to feel at all. Sometimes, however, earthquakes cause great losses of life and property ... "
"You might not realise but the ground beneath us never stops moving. Only when the movement is sudden and powerful do we take note."
How to Predict an Earthquake
"Will scientists ever be able to accurately predict the timing of an earthquake? Imagine the number of lives that could be saved if this were possible. Dr Maryanne Demasi joins a group of researchers drilling into one of the most earthquake-prone regions on Earth as they try to improve earthquake prediction to add precious seconds to earthquake warning times."
Look deep, down into the Earth
"Imagine tunnelling deep, deep below the Earth's surface. What do you think you would find thousands of kilometres down? Watch this clip to find out what is inside the Earth, what it's made up of and how hot it is. Find out about earthquakes, volcanoes, and geysers, and how they help us to understand about the composition of planet Earth."
"An earthquake is a sudden, rapid shaking of the earth caused by the shifting of rock beneath the earth’s surface. They strike without warning, at any time of year, day or night. "
Newcastle Earthquake 1989
On this day: Newcastle earthquake strikes
"ON 28 DECEMBER, 1989, the streets of Newcastle, from all accounts, were devastated. People were seen clearing from their offices and spilling onto the streets as buildings began to crumble around them, as one of the most disastrous earthquakes in Australian history struck."
Australia’s worst earthquakes
"Earthquakes strike when tectonic plates mash and grind against each other. You may think Australia is safe, being in the middle of a plate, but experts say we are rattled by about one small quake a day ... "
"At 10.27am on Thursday, 28 December 1989, Newcastle was devastated by an ML 5.6 (Richter magnitude) earthquake. This was one of the most serious natural disasters in Australia's history."
On this day: Newcastle earthquake strikes
"ON 28 DECEMBER, 1989, the streets of Newcastle, from all accounts, were devastated. People were seen clearing from their offices and spilling onto the streets as buildings began to crumble around them, as one of the most disastrous earthquakes in Australian history struck. "
Archival revival: 1989 Newcastle earthquake | photos
"IT was 10.27am on Thursday, December 28, 1989, when the apparently unthinkable happened, and an earthquake with the substantial magnitude of 5.6 on the Richter scale shook Newcastle and some of its surrounding areas to their very core."
California Earthquake 1989
San Francisco Earthquake of 1989
"On October 17, 1989, a magnitude 6.9 earthquake hit the San Francisco Bay Area, killing 67 people and causing more than $5 billion in damages."
San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989
"The San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989, which was also called the Loma Prieta earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989. The strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, it caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage."
Thirty years after devastating quake, is San Francisco ready for the next?
"The 6.9-magnitude Loma Prieta quake killed 63 in 1989. Decades later, the Bay Area is still plagued by structural threats and flammable fuels ... "
Christchurch Earthquake 2011
New Zealand's been hit by another deadly earthquake the second in just six months. The city of Christchurch was struck last week killing more than a hundred people and injuring many others. So why does New Zealand seem to be getting so many earthquakes?
2011 Christchurch earthquake facts for kids
"The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake which struck the South Island of New Zealand at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011 NZT. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). It was about 5 km underground ... "
Case study high income country (HIC): Christchurch 2011
Scroll down the page to read the Case Study about the Christchurch Earthquake. "The earthquake struck on 22 February 2011. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 km deep. The earthquake happened on a conservative plate margin between the Pacific Plate and the Australian Plate."
Christchurch earthquake kills 185
At the end of this article are more links to other resources. "At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand."