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Bibliographies: In-Text Citations

When do you Cite?

Each time you summarise, paraphrase or use a direct quote (including statistics) from another source you must indicate the source of that information in the body of your work.

Each in-text citation must also have an entry in your Bibliography.


How do you Cite?

Citemaker displays the in-text citation relevant for each source. Under the In-Text  tab of Citemaker you will find the in-text citation you should use for each source. The arrow on the Citemaker example below indicates where you will find the in-text citation.

When you have entered all your sources and are writing your draft, Citemaker will provide the citation you should use for any direct quotes or paraphrased ideas. 

Step One

Log into Citemaker and you will notice the folders you have created in which you save your Bibliographies. Click on the relevant subject folder (see below).

Step Two

The folder will expand to reveal each bibliography you have saved for that subject, select the relevant bibliography.

Step Three

Tick the box which corresponds to the citation you require and then click In-text.

Step Four

The citation you should use for a direct quote or paraphrasing of an idea from this source will then load. See below. For this example, the citation will load with the page numbers. You must replace all the pages with just the page from which the quote or paraphrasing is located. You will also notice there are two options. One option is used when you do not include the author's name within your sentence and the other option is used when you choose to include reference to the author's name in your sentence. See the examples below on Direct Quotes and Paraphrasing to clarify if needed.



Direct Quote

Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have quoted the author. See below:

As historian Tonkin (1992, p.13.) argues, "[t]here are those who can read but not write, or are able to recognise road signs but not to read shop names." She suggests that, rather than think of literacy in clear cut terms of a person's ability to read and write, we should recognize different degrees of ability. After all, she asserts, "[t]he line is not so easy to draw between 'able to read' and 'able to understand'." 

Use square brackets around words or letters within a direct quote to acknowledge to the reader of your work that you have changed a capitalised letter or word.


Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have paraphrased the author's ideas. See below:

While we often think of literacy in simple terms, it is a very complex issue. Many people in both Britain and the United States are unable to read a textbook, for example, but can read road signs without difficulty (Tonkin, 1992, p.13).

When incorporating quotes or paraphrasing, you should try to use a variety of different and appropriate introductory words. See the examples below.