Skip to main content

Bibliographies: In-Text Citations

When do you Cite?

Each time you summarise, paraphrase or use a direct quote (including statistics) from another source you must indicate the source of that information in the body of your work.

Each in-text citation must also have an entry in your Bibliography.

Citemaker

How do you Cite?

Direct Quote

Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have quoted the author. See below:

As historian Tonkin (1992, p.13.) argues, "[t]here are those who can read but not write, or are able to recognise road signs but not to read shop names." She suggests that, rather than think of literacy in clear cut terms of a person's ability to read and write, we should recognize different degrees of ability. After all, she asserts, "[t]he line is not so easy to draw between 'able to read' and 'able to understand'." 

Use square brackets around words or letters within a direct quote to acknowledge to the reader of your work that you have changed a capitalised letter or word.

Paraphrase

Include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if relevant) after you have paraphrased the author's ideas. See below:

While we often think of literacy in simple terms, it is a very complex issue. Many people in both Britain and the United States are unable to read a textbook, for example, but can read road signs without difficulty (Tonkin, 1992, p.13).

Sentence Starters

Introducing the ideas of others in your assignment

Intext Citation Video

Citemaker: In-text Citations