Skip to main content

Bibliographies: Introduction


As a student, you are expected to demonstrate Academic Honesty.

When you are given a research topic you search for information, facts and opinions which already exist. It is appropriate and required that you demonstrate ethical consumption of this information.  You demonstrate the ethical use of information when you include a bibliography in your assignment and use in-text citations.

The Villanova Library subscribes to Citemaker on your behalf. This is a Bibliography and citation generator. Citemaker  will assist you in easily compiling a bibliography and will generate the correct in-text citation for your assignments. Scroll down this page to load a series of video tutorials which demonstrate how to register and use the generator.


A Bibliography is a list of sources you have used to complete your assignment.

There are many different styles of bibliographies. Often the differences are as small as the placement of a full stop or the use of italics.

At Villanova we have adopted the APA style. An example is provided for you to the right. 

Each source you enter into a bibliography is called a citation.



Common Errors and Misconceptions

  1. The bibliography must be presented in alphabetical order, according to the author's last name or the organisation's name. For example, enter the last name first into the author field followed by the author's initial: smith a For organisation authors, enter the full name.  For example, united nations. Citemaker will always ask you to confirm if the author is an organisation. If you fail to confirm the author is an organisation, Citemaker will record the author as, Nations, U. Obviously, this is wrong.
  2. Check your spelling. Citemaker does not correct spelling errors. We notice spelling errors in author's names, the titles of books and journal articles, even URLs.
  3. The purpose of the bibliography is to provide your audience with as much detailed information about your sources. Make sure you narrow down the author's name as much as possible. If you are using information from the Queensland Department of Health the author should not be Queensland Government. This is too broad. The author should be Queensland Department of Health.
  4. The author's name should be identified in full. For example, United Nations not UN, Australian Bureau of Statistics not ABS.
  5. When there are multiple authors, you must enter each author's name. Citemaker will accurately display the authors according to the APA style.
  6. For books, journal articles and physical newspapers, include the page numbers into Citemaker. These will be used by Citemaker to indicate how you should formulate your in-text citation. 

Bibliography Example

Academic Honesty

In-Text Citations, Reference Lists and Bibliographies

Citemaker Tutorials

Loading ...

Why add Citations into a Bibliography